The global pharmaceutical industry presently relies on the pharmaceutical supply chain in India and China for the manufacture of much of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) for both generic and branded drugs. China provides almost two-thirds of the global APIs but Indian pharmaceutical companies have been found to have better capabilities in formulation development, finished drug manufacturing, and product marketing in regulated markets such as United States and Europe.
The Indian pharmaceutical industry has seen revenue growth of 12% per year and the country is producing about 20% of all generics globally, second only to China. With growing efforts to reduce healthcare costs, generics are projected to represent 92% of all drugs globally by 2022. Both India and China’s pharmaceutical industry has come under scrutiny for the pollution resulting from drug manufacturing. In particular, the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria, or “superbugs,” has been attributed in part to insufficient attention to management of pharmaceutical manufacturing waste.